Johnson Scholes and Whittington strateginio planavimo įrankis

Pagrindinė bėda su strateginio planavimo įrankiais yra ta, kad smagu teoretizuoti, bet sudėtinga viską “nuleisti ant žemės” – įgyvendinti. Scholes ir Whittington sudėliojo klasikinio būdo moderniąją versiją, kurią sau ir užsirašiau.

Pradžiai – šiek tiek bendros info (šaltinis: Yra keletas strateginio planavimo sričių: klasikinė, emergent (Mintzberg), incremental ir oportunistinė. Klasikinis procesas turi tris etapus: analizę, sprendimą ir įgyvendinimą.

Šis procesas yra linijinis, o Scholes ir Whittington įrodo, kad dinamiškoje aplinkoje yra daugybė priklausomybių, todėl modelis turi būti patobulintas skirtingomis perspektyvomis:

Tuomet visi trys elementai iš nuoseklaus sudėliojami į trikampį:

The strategic position/analysis

Assessing the strategic position consists of analysing:

  • the environment (competitors, markets, regulations, discoveries etc). Key factors are often summarised as opportunities and threats.
  • the strategic capability of the organisation (resources, competences). Key factors are often summarised as strengths and weaknesses)
  • the culture, beliefs and assumptions of the organisation
  • the expectation and power of stakeholders (what do the shareholders want? Will employees co-operate?).

Strategic choice

Strategic choice follows strategic analysis and is based upon the following three elements.

  • Generation of strategic options, e.g. growth, acquisition, diversification or concentration.
  • Evaluation of the options to assess their relative merits and feasibility.
  • Selection of the strategy or option that the organisation will pursue. There could be more than one strategy chosen but there is a chance of an inherent danger or disadvantage to any choice made. Although there are techniques for evaluating specific options, the selection is often subjective and likely to be influenced by the values of managers and other groups with an interest in the organisation.

In addition to deciding the scope and direction of an organisation,choices also need to be made about how to achieve the goal.

Broadly,there are two ways in which a strategy can be pursued:

  • internal development (organic growth)
  • external development – merger/acquisition, JV, franchising/licensing.

Strategy into action (implementation)

Implementing a strategy has three elements.

  • Organising/structuring. For example, should the organisation be split into European, US and Asian divisions? How autonomous should divisions be? What parenting style would be appropriate?
  • Enabling an organisation’s resources should support the chosen strategy. For example, appropriate human resources and assets need to be acquired.
  • Managing change. Most strategic planning and implementation will involve change, so managing change, in particular employees’ fears and resistance, is crucial.